1860- Robert Anderson renews his plea for reinforcements. 1861- U.S. gunboat Penguin captures the blockade-runner Albion of Nassau off Charleston and confiscates her cargo. 1863- Finding Lee's Mine Run defenses too strong, Meade withdraws the Army of the Potomac into winter quarters at Culpeper, Va. - Bragg is removed from the Army of Tennessee to become military advisor to Pres. Davis. 1864- James Speed replaces Edward Bates at U.S. Attorney General.
1863- Lt. Gen. William Hardee receives Bragg's command at Dalton, Ga. 1864- Hood takes up a defensive line south of Nashville.
1826- George Brinton McClellan is born in Philadelphia.
1860- In his annual message to Congress, Pres. James Buchanan declares that secession is unconstitutional but denies that Federal government has power to force states to remain in the Union. 1862- Confederate Gen. Joseph E. Johnston assumes overall command in the West. 1863- Longstreet retreats toward southwestern Virginia after ending the siege of Vicksburg.
1839- George Armstrong Custard (USA) is born in New Rumley, Ohio.
1833- John Singleton Mosby (CSA) is born in Edgemont, Va. 1864- Salmon P. Chase is appointed Chief Justice of the United States, after the death of Roger B. Taney. - Pres. Lincoln reports that in the year ending July 1, 1863, the War and Navy Departments had spent $776,525,135.74
1862- Confederate raider John Hunt Morgan, with 1,400 men, surprises a Federal garrison at Hartsville, Tenn., taking 1,800 prisoners.
1860- Secretary of the Treasury Howell Cobb of Georgia resigns, believing secession is imperative. 1863- Pres. Lincoln issues Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction, pardoning participants "in the existing rebellion" if they take an oath to the Union.
1860- Buchanan agrees not to reinforce the Charleston forts without notifying South Carolina congressmen. 1862- Negro Federal troops at Fort Jackson, La., mutiny over alleged mistreatment by one white officers of his soldiers.
1861- An act of the Confederate Congress in Richmond admits Kentucky to the Confederacy, thus completing the thirteen states.
1861- Already suffering under Federal blockade, Charleston, S.C., is struck by a disastrous fire that sweeps through its business district. 1862- Burnside's troops start to cross the Rappahannock at Fredericksburg. - Brig. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest launches a cavalry attack upon Grant's communication lines in Tennessee.
1862- On the Yazoo River, Miss., the Federal ironclad Cairo strikes a mine and sinks; the crew escapes.
1818- Mary Todd Lincoln, wife of Abraham Lincoln, is born in Lexington, Ky. 1862- Burnside's repeated frontal assaults on Lee's lines are repulsed with heavy loss in the Battle of Fredericksburg. 1864- Sherman captures Fort McAllister, guarding Savannah, and establishes contact with Dahlgren's Union blockading fleet.
1860- Secretary of State Lewis Cass of Michigan resigns because of Buchanan's failure to reinforce Anderson at Fort Sumter. 1861- Brig. Gen. H.H. Sibley assumes command of the Confederate forces on the upper Rio Grande and in New Mexico and Arizona Territories.
1862- The defeated Army of the Potomac withdraws across the Rappahannock River. 1863- Confederate Maj. Gen. Jubal A. Early is assigned to the Shenandoah Valley district. 1864- Thomas assaults Hood's army in front of Nashville.
1864- Battle of Nashville ends as Confederate army commanded by Gen. John B. Hood is almost destroyed by Union troops under Gen. George Thomas.
1861- Federals sink several old hulks loaded with stones in Savannah Harbor in an effort to halt shipping.
1860- Senator John J. Crittenden of Kentucky proposes six amendments to the Constitution, protecting slavery. 1865- Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is declared in effect by Secretary of State Seward after approval by 27 states.
1814- Edwin McMasters Stanton, U.S. Secretary of War 1862-1868, is born in Steubenville, Ohio.
1860- In Charleston, the South Carolina Convention passes formal declaration of secession being the first state to secede. - The Senate forms the Committee of Thirteen to seek compromise. 1861- The Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War is organized, consisting of U.S. Senators Benjamin Wade (Chairman), Zachariah Chandler, and Andrew Johnson; and Representatives D.W. Gooch, G.W. Julian, John Covode, and Moses F. Odell. 1862- Van Dorn destroys Grant's supply depot at Holly Springs, Miss., halting his advance on Vicksburg. - Sherman leaves Memphis and heads down the Mississippi River for Vicksburg.
1862- Confederate Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan starts a cavalry raid on the Federal supply lines in central Tennessee. 1864- Threatened by an assault from Sherman, Lt. Gen. William J. Hardee evacuates Savannah, Ga.; Sherman occupies the city.
1860- Lincoln's opposition to the key Crittenden proposal protecting slavery in the territories is made public. 1864- Gen. Sherman sends Pres. Lincoln a message: "I beg to present you, as a Christmas gift, the city of Savannah...."
1864- A Federal fleet rendezvouses near Wilmington, N.C., for an attack on Fort Fisher.
1860- The Senate Committee of Thirteen rejects the Crittenden Compromise. 1864- Federal fleet begins bombardment of Fort Fisher, N.C., which guards the Wilmington, the last Confederate port even partially open.
1864- Federal army and navy troops take Fort Fisher, N.C., but the attack fails.
1860- Anderson withdraws all the Federal forces in Charleston Harbor from Fort Moultrie to stronger Fort Sumter. 1862- Federals attack a guerrilla camp in Powell County, Ky.
1860- The U.S. flag is raised over Fort Sumter as South Carolina troops occupy Charleston forts. 1861- Seward announces the release of Mason and Slidell and acknowledges Wilkes' error in seizing them. 1863- Joseph E. Johnston assumes command of the Confederate Army of Tennessee.
1862- Federal Army of the Frontier pushes back Confederates at Dripping Springs, Ark., capturing Van Buren, Ark.
1808- Andrew Johnson, 17th U.S. President (1865-1869), succeeding Abraham Lincoln, is born in Raleigh, N.C. 1860- Secretary of War John Floyd of Virginia resigns.
1862- U.S.S. Monitor, hero of the battle with the Merrimac, sinks of Cape Hatteras in heavy seas, 16 officers and men are lost.
1815- George Gordon Meade (USA) is born in Cadiz, Spain. 1860- The Committee of Thirteen reports its failure to reach a compromise. - Buchanan orders reinforcements for Anderson. 1862- Bragg holds the edge over Rosecrans after a day of heavy fighting at Murfreesboro, Tenn.