1861- Texas secedes from the Union. 1865- Sherman begins his invasion of the Carolinas. - Illinois is the first state to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, abolishing slavery.
1863- Grant cuts the levee at Yazoo Pass, Miss., to open a passage for gunboats to reach the rear of Vicksburg by way of the Yazoo River. 1864- U.S. Gunboat Underwriter is captured and set afire by Confederate navy men near New Berne, N.C.
1807- Joseph E. Johnston (CSA) is born at "Cherry Grove," Prince Edward County, Va. 1865- Lincoln and Seward meet the Confederate leaders Alexander H. Stephans, R.M.T. Hunter, and J.A. Campbell in an unsuccessful peace conference at Hampton Roads, Va., aboard the River Queen.
1861- Virginia's Peace Conference, boycotted by the Deep South, opens in Washington. 1861- First session of the Provisional Congress of the Confederate States of America is held in Montgomery, Ala.
1864- Sherman's Federal troops march into Jackson, Miss., in route to Meridan.
1833- James Ewell Brown ("Jeb") Stuart (CSA) is born in Patrick County, Va. 1862- Grant and Flag Officer Andrew Foote lead a successful joint army-navy attack upon Fort Henry on the Tennessee River. 1865- Robert E. Lee is appointed commander in chief of the Confederate armies. - John C. Breckinridge replaces James A. Seldon as Confederate Secretary of War.
1862- A.S. Johnston orders a Confederate retreat from southwestern Kentucky.
1820- William Tecumseh Sherman (USA) is born in Lancaster, Ohio. 1861- The Constitution for a provisional Confederate government is adopted in Montgomery. 1862- A Federal expedition under Brig. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside takes Roanoke Island, N.C.
1861- Jefferson Davis and Alexander H. Stephens are elected provisional Confederate President and Vice-President.
1862- Remainder of Confederate "Mosquito" fleet is destroyed at Elizabeth City, N.C.
1812- Alexander Hamilton Stephens, Vice-President of the Confederacy, is born in Wilkes (Taliaferro) County, Ga. 1861- Lincoln leaves Springfield for Washington.
1809- Abraham Lincoln, 16th U.S. President, is born in Hardin County, Ky.
1861- The electoral college confirms Lincoln's election. 1862- Federal forces, under Grant, attack Fort Donelson, Tenn., on the Cumberland River.
1864- Sherman's Union troops capture Meridan, Miss.
1861- The Montgomery convention, acting as the provisional Confederate Congress, passes a resolution to take Fort Sumter and Fort Pickens, Fla., by force if necessary. 1865- Heavy skirmishing occurs as Sherman's Federals continue their march toward Columbia, S.C.
1862- 15,000 Confederate are captured as Brig. Gen. Simon B. Buckner, unconditionally surrenders Fort Donelson to Grant.
1864- The Confederate submarine Hunley sinks the U.S.S. Housatonic off Charleston. 1865- Columbia, S.C., is captured and burned; Charleston is evacuated.
1861- Jefferson Davis is inaugurated at Montgomery as provisional President if the Confederacy. 1865- After Fort Sumter is abandoned, Charleston surrenders to Union troops under Brig. Gen. Alexander Schimmelfenning.
1862- New Confederate Congress orders release of 2,000 Federal prisoners of war.
1864- Union forces under Brig. Gen. Truman Seymour are defeated at the Battle of Olustee, Fla. - The Pomeroy circular, a letter by Senator S. C. Pomeroy of Kansas calling for the nomination of Secretary of the Treasury Chase instead of Lincoln, is published. 1865- Confederate House of Representatives authorizes the use of slaves as soldiers.
1862- Confederates successfully engage Federal forces at Valverde, New Mexico Territory.
1862- Jefferson Davis is inaugurated as permanent President of the Confederate government in Richmond. 1864- Confederate cavalry under Forrest defeats Brig. Gen. William Sooy Smith's cavalry at Okolona, Miss. 1865- Wilmington, N.C., surrenders to Schofield. - Johnston is recalled to command of the Army of Tennessee to oppose Sherman's advance in North Carolina.
1861- Lincoln arrives in Washington after a secret overnight trip from Harrisburg, Pa., through Baltimore, due to an assassination attempt. - Texas voters approve secession by a wide margin.
1862- Federal troops under Gen. Nathaniel Banks occupy Harpers Ferry, Va.
1862- Federal War Department takes control of all telegraph lines to facilitate military moves. - Confederates abandon Nashville, Tenn. 1863- The U.S. Congress authorizes a national banking system.
1863- Cherokee Indian National Council repeals ordinance of secession, proclaims for the Union.
1862- Near Americus, Ga., Federal prisoners of war begin arriving at unfinished Camp Sumter (Andersonville) prison camp.
1862- The Confederacy observes a day of fasting and prayer.