1862- Lee's last effort to disrupt McClellan's retreat is repulsed at Maven Hill, Va., ending the Seven Days' Battle. - The U.S. Congress authorizes construction of a transcontinental railroad. 1863- Confederates A.P. Hill and Ewell rout Meade's advance forces at Gettysburg; Lee concentrates on Seminary Ridge, and Meade on Cemetery Ridge.
1862- Lincoln calls for 300,000 three-year enlistments. - The U.S. Congress passes the Morrill Act, providing land grants to states for agricultural colleges. 1863- Lee's heavy attacks on both ends of Meade's Gettysburg lines are repulsed. - Stuart rejoins Lee.
1862- McClellan entrenches at Harrison's Landing, Va., on the James River. 1863- Lee orders an attack on Meade's center; "Pickett's Charge" is broken, ending the three-day Battle of Gettysburg. - Pemberton asks Grant for terms for Vicksburg's surrender. - Bragg, outmaneuvered by Rosecrans, retreats to Chattanooga. 1864- Johnston withdraws from Kennesaw Mountain to his Chattahoochee River defenses to escape Sherman's flanking movement.
1861- A special session of the U.S. Congress convenes. 1863- Vicksburg, with 300,000 troops, surrenders to Grant. 1864- The U.S. Congress passes the Wade-Davis Bill, a stiff reconstruction measure which Lincoln refuses to sign.
1863- Lee retreats from Gettysburg.
1864- Early crosses the Potomac River into Maryland.
1863- Finding the Potomac flooded, Lee entrenches at Williamsport, Md. ; Meade refrains from attacking.
1863- Confederate unconditionally surrender Port Hudson, La., last Confederate garrison on the Mississippi.
1863- The surrender of Port Hudson, La., gives the Federals control of the Mississippi River, thus splitting the Confederacy. - John Hunt Morgan leads a Confederate cavalry raid across the Ohio River. 1864- Johnston withdraws from the Chattahoochee River line as Sherman outflanks him and pushes toward Atlanta. - Early reaches Frederick, Md., and wins a victory at Monocacy.
1863- Federal forces land on Morris Island near Charleston, S.C., and begin siege of Fort Wagner that will last until September.
1861- McClellan wins the Battle of Rich Mountain in western Virginia. 1862- Halleck becomes general in chief of the Union armies. 1864- Reinforcements from the Army of the Potomac arrive in Washington to protect the capital.
1864- Early is forced to withdraw to Shenandoah Valley after reaching the outskirts of Washington.
1863- In New York City a mob of 50,000 begin four-day draft riots.
1862- Pope leads an advance of the Union Army of Virginia upon Gordonsville, Va. 1863- Lee completes his withdrawal across the Potomac River; Maj. Gen. Harry Heth fights a rearguard action at Falling Waters, Md.
1864- Union Maj. Gen. A.J. Smith withdraws from Tupelo, Miss., despite a tactical victory over Forrest and Lt. Gen. Stephen D. Lee.
1861- McDowell's Union army advances upon Manassas Junction, Va 1863- Federal troops restore order in New York City.
1862- The U.S. Congress passes a second Confiscation Act, freeing the slaves of those who support rebellion. 1864- General John Bell Hood replaces Johnston in command of the Confederate Army of Tennessee as Sherman nears Atlanta.
1863- Federal Maj. Gen. John G. Foster assumes command of the Department of Virginia and North Carolina.
1863- Over half of Morgan's force is captured at Buffington, Ohio.
1861- Maj. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston's Rebel troops from the Shenandoah Valley join Brig. Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard at Manassas Junction. - The Confederate Congress convenes at Richmond. 1864- Hood's attack on the Federals at Peachtree Creek, Ga., is repulsed; Sherman moves to cut Atlanta's rail connections.
1861- The First Battle of Bull Run ( First Manassas) ends in rout of McDowell's Union forces. - Maj. Gen. John C. Frémont assumes command of Union forces in the West, at St. Louis. - R.M.T. Hunter replaces Robert Toombs as the Confederate Secretary of State.
1862- A cartel, providing for prisoner exchange, is signed by the North and the South. - Lincoln shows his first draft of the Emancipation Proclamtion to his cabinet. 1864- Hood fails to turn Sherman's flank at the Battle of Atlanta; Union Maj. Gen. James B. McPherson is killed.
1862- Maj. Gen. Henry Wager Halleck assumes command of the armies of the U.S.
1863- The Army of Northern Virginia begins to concentrate at Culpeper Hill, Va. 1864- Early defeats Union troops at Kernstown in the Shenandoah Valley.
1861- The U.S. Congress passes the Crittenden Resolution, declaring the object of the war to be the preservation of the Union.
1863- Morgan surrenders at New Lisbon, Ohio.
1861- McClellan replaces McDowell as commander of Federal troops in the Washington area.
1864- Federal troops making a feint at Richmond are repulsed at Deep Bottom, Va. - At Ezra Church, Ga., Hood's third attack on Sherman is broken.
1862- The Alabama leaves Liverpool, England, to begin attacks upon Northern shipping.
1864- A Federal mine breaches Lee's Petersburg lines, but the Rebels halt the Union breakthrough at the Battle of the Crater. - Brig. Gen. John McCausland's Rebel cavalry burns Chambersburg, Pa.
1864- George Stoneman's Union cavalry attempts to liberate Andersonville prisoners but is captured by Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler near Macon, Ga.