1831- John Bell Hood (CSA) is born in Owningsville, Bath County, Kentucky. 1862- Robert E. Lee succeeds to command of the Confederate forces defending Richmond as the fighting ends in Four Oaks. 1864- Lee begins to entrench at Cold Harbor, Va.; Grant takes up a position facing him.
1864- Battle of Cold Harbor continues. - Federal troops under David Hunter fight at Covington, Va., in what became known as the Lynchburg Campaign.
1808- Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederate States of America 1861-1865, is born in Christian County, Ky. 1861- Stephen A. Douglas dies at Chicago. - Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's army, invading western Virginia, routs Confederates at Philippi. 1863- Lee launches a second invasion of the North from Fredericksburg. 1864- Grant is severely repulsed in the Cold Harbor assault; the Federals entrench after the battle. - The U.S. Congress passes a National Banking Act, which provides for a national currency.
1862- Fort Pillow, Tenn., on the Mississippi River, is evacuated by the Confederate. 1864- Johnston shifts his lines to Lost, Pine, and Brush mountains, to check Sherman's advance.
1864- Confederate Brig. Gen. William E. "Grumble" Jones is killed in an engagement with Federal troops in the Shenandoah Valley.
1862- Memphis, Tenn., is occupied after a Federal victory in naval battle there.
1863- Union troops burn and sack the Brierfield Plantation of Jefferson Davis and his brother Joseph.
1862- Jackson defeats Frémont at the Battle on Cross Keys, Va. 1864- The Republicans, meeting at Baltimore, nominate Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson, a War Democrat, as Union Party candidates.
1862- Jackson defeats Shields at Port Republic, Va. 1863- As a result of a cavalry battle at Brandy Station, Va., Hooker learns of Lee's northward advance.
1861- Federal troops are forced to withdraw after the Battle of Big Bethel, Va. - Napoleon III proclaims French neutrality. 1864- Forrest crushes a Federal force under Maj. Gen. S.D. Sturgis at Brice's Crossroads, Miss.
1861- Western Virginia counties refuse to secede and set up a state government, recognized by Washington as the loyal Virginia government.
1864- Sheridan abandons his cavalry raid on the Shenandoah Valley after repulsed by Maj. Gen. Wade Hampton at Trevilian Station, Va.
1861- The Confederacy observes a fast day, by proclamation of Pres. Davis, to dramatize the needed war effort.
1811- Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of Uncle Tom's Cabin is born in Litchfield, Conn. 1864- Grant, having moved his army across the Peninsula, begins to cross the James River in order to attack Petersburg, Va. - Confederate Lt. Gen. Leonidas Polk is killed at Pine Mountain, Ga.
1862- Brig. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart completes a four-day reconnaissance ride around McClellan's army. 1863- Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell, leading Lee's invasion, destroys the Union garrison at Winchester, Va. 1864- Grant's advance guard under William F. Smith fails to take the thinly held Petersburg line. - C.G. Memminger resigns as Confederate Secretary of the Treasury, to be replaced by George A. Trenholm.
1864- Beauregard abandons the Bermuda Hundred lines to repulse the Union attacks at Petersburg.
1862- Jackson's army leaves the Shenandoah Valley to join Lee's Army of Northern Virginia at Richmond. 1864- Lee's army reoccupies the Bermuda Hundred lines before Butler can advance.
1860- Democrats reconvene in Baltimore. 1864- Lee's troops begin to arrive in the Petersburg lines, and Grant opens the siege of Petersburg after further assaults fail. - Union Maj. Gen. David Hunter, replacing Sigel in the Shenandoah Valley, is defeated by Early at Lynchburg, Va.
1862- Slavery is abolished in U.S. territories. 1864- Johnston withdraws from Pine Mountain to Kennesaw Mountain, Ga. - The Confederate raider Alabama is sunk by the U.S.S. Kearsarge off Cherbourg, France.
1863- By presidential proclamation, West Virginia is admitted to the Union as the thirty-fifth state.
1863- Heavy skirmishing marks Lee's advance northward, with engagements at several locations in Virginia and Frederick, Maryland.
1860- Anti-Douglas delegates again withdraw from the convention.
1860- Regular Democrats nominate Stephen A. Douglas and Herschel V. Johnson. Anti-Douglas Democrats choose John C. Breckinridge and Joseph Lane. 1863- Rosecrans advances on Tullahoma to dislodge Bragg from Tennessee. 1864- A.P. Hill blocks Union troops advancing on the Weldon Railroad at Petersburg. - Early opens a Confederate offensive in the Shenandoah Valley.
1861- Two U.S. gunboats shell Confederate positions at Mathis Point, Virginia.
1862- McClellan attacks at Oak Grove, Va. Starting the Seven Days' Battles. 1863- Stuart departs on a cavalry raid, intending to ride around Hooker's army and then screen Lee's advance into Pennsylvania. - A Federal mine is exploded at Vicksburg with little effect, and the attack fails. - Hooker begins crossing the Potomac River to check Lee's advance.
1862- Lee attacks McClellan's right wing at Mechanicsville, Va., but fails to destroy Brig. Gen. Fitz-John Porter's corps. - Pope is given command of the Federal Army of Virginia, newly formed from the commands of Frémont, McDowell, and Banks. - Farragut's ships start bombarding Vicksburg, Miss.
1862- General Braxton Bragg replaces Beauregard in command of the Confederate Army of Mississippi. - Lee continues his attack on Porter, achieving a breakthrough at Gaines' Mill and forcing McClellan to retreat toward the James River. 1864- Sherman's frontal assault on Kennesaw Mountain is driven back by Johnston.
1863- Maj. Gen. Jubal Early's division of Lee's army seizes York, Pa. - Maj. Gen. George Gordon Meade replaces Hooker as commander of the Army of the Potomac.
1862- Lee continues his attack on the Army of the Potomac in the Battle of Savage's Station, Va. 1863- Lee, learning that the Federals are north of the Potomac, orders his forces to concentrate near Gettysburg, Pa.; Stuart is still absent since he left on June 25.
1862- Lee fails to cut off McClellan's retreat at the Battle of Frayser's Farm, Va. 1864- Chase resigns as U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, to be replaced by William Fessenden. 1865- All eight alleged Lincoln assassination conspirators are found guilty.