1861- The U.S. Congress refuses to consider Virginia's peace conference proposals. 1864- Pres. Lincoln nominates Gen. Ulysses S. Grant for the newly created rank of lieutenant general.
1861- The U.S. Congress passes the Morrill Tariff Act, a high protective tariff, long opposed by the South. 1862- Polk abandons the Rebels' Mississippi River stronghold at Columbus, Ky. 1865- Sheridan destroys Early's remaining troops in the Shenandoah Valley at Waynesboro, Va. 1867- U.S. Congress passes the Reconstruction Act, setting conditions for reintegration of Southern states into the Union.
1862- Lincoln appoints Andrew Johnson military governor of Tennessee. 1863- The Lincoln and the U.S. Congress pass the first federal draft applicable to all men between 20 and 45; exemptions are provided for by the payment of $300 or the hiring of a substitute. 1864- A Union cavalry raid on Richmond led by Brig Gen. Judson Kilpatrick and Col. Ulric Dahlgren fails; Dahlgren is killed and incriminated in an assassination plot against Jefferson Davis.
1861- Abraham Lincoln is inaugurated for his first term. 1864- Sherman's troops return to Vicksburg after a damaging, month-long raid on Meridan, Miss. - Civil government is restored in Louisiana. 1865- Lincoln is inaugurated for a second term.
1861- Lincoln's cabinet is announced: State- William H. Seward; Treasury- Salmon P. Chase; Navy- Gideon Welles; War- Simon Cameron; Interior- Caleb B. Smith Attorney General- Edward Bates; Postmaster General- Montgomery Blair. 1862- Gen. Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard assumes command of the Confederate Army of the Mississippi.
1831- Philip Henry Sheridan (USA) is born in Albany, N.Y. 1861- The Confederate cabinet is completed: State- Robert Toombs; War- Leroy P. Walker; Navy- Stephen R. Mallory Treasury- Christopher G. Memminger; Attorney General- Judah P. Benjamin; Postmaster General- John H. Reagan. - The Confederacy calls for 100,000 volunteers. 1862- Lincoln proposes to Congress the gradual, compensated emancipation of border-state slaves. - The Monitor , the first Federal ironclad, leaves New York.
1862- The raised Federal warship Merrimac ,converted to the Confederate ironclad Virginia at Norfolk, is prepared for a trial run in Hampton Roads, Va. - Battle of Pea Ridge (Elkhorn Tavern), Ark., biggest battle of the West, begins. 1865- Hugh McCulloch replaces William Fessenden as U.S. Secretary of the Treasury.
1862- Confederated lose the two-day Battle of Pea Ridge, Ark., ensuring Union control of Missouri. - The Virginia (Merrimac) enters Hampton Roads, destroying the U.S.S Cumberland and damages two other Union warships. 1863- Grant abandons his attempts to bypass Vicksburg's river defenses via the Canal and Lake Providence routes.
1862- Modern era of naval warfare begins as the ironclads Monitor and Merrimac battle at Hampton Roads, Va.
1863- Pres. Lincoln issues a proclamation of amnesty to soldiers absent without leave, if they report before April 1.
1861- The Confederacy adopts a permanent Constitution. 1862- Halleck is given command of all Federal forces in the West. - Pres. Lincoln relieves George B. McClellan from his post as General-in-Chief of the U.S. Armies. But, he retains command of the Army of the Potomac. 1865- Sherman reaches Fayetteville, N.C., and re-establishes contact with Federal forces on the coast.
1862- A naval force occupies Jacksonville, Fla. 1864- Grant, promoted to the rank of lieutenant general, becomes General-in-Chief of the U.S. armies. - Red River campaign begins under Union Gen. Nathaniel Banks.
1863- Explosion at the Confederate Ordinance Laboratory in Richmond kills or injures 69. 1865- The Confederate Congress authorizes the use of slaves as combat soldiers.
1862- Southern forces abandon New Madrid, Mo., opening the way for a Union attack on Island No. 10 in the Mississippi. - Burnside takes New Bern, N.C. 1863- Adm. Farragut leads his Union flotilla up the Mississippi at night, past the batteries at Port Hudson, La.
1861- Montgomery Blair, alone among Lincoln's cabinet members, advises the reinforcement of Anderson at Fort Sumter. 1863- In San Francisco, authorities seize the schooner J.M. Chapman, about to depart with 20 alleged secessionists and 6 Dahlgren guns. 1864- Porter's Union flotilla reaches Alexandria, La., to spearhead the Red River Campaign.
1862- Martial law is instituted by the U.S. in San Francisco in response to rumors of possible attack. 1865- Federal troops restore order in New York City.
1862- Grant assumes command of the Federal army at Pittsburgh Landing, Tenn. - Davis completes the reorganization of the Confederate cabinet, with Judah P. Benjamin succeeding R.M.T. Hunter as Sec. of State, George W. Randolph taking Benjamin's place as Sec. of War, and Thomas H. Watts replacing Thomas Bragg as Attorney General. 1863- Grant's Yazoo Pass expedition is blocked at Rebel Fort Pemberton. 1864- Lt. Gen. Grant formally assumes command of the Armies of the U.S. 1865- Maj. Gen. E.R.S. Canby opens a Federal attack on Mobile.
1864- Sherman assumes command of the principal Union armies in the West. 1865- In the midst of contention with Pres. Davis, Confederate Congress adjourns its last session
1861- In Texas, Forts Clark, Inge, and Lancaster are surrendered by Federal troops. 1865- Sherman repulses Johnston's attack at Bentonville, N.C., and the Rebels retreat toward Raleigh.
1862- Stonewall Jackson pursues withdrawing Union troops toward Winchester, Va.
1861- Louisiana ratifies the Confederate Constitution. 1863- Sherman rescues Rear Adm. David Dixon Porter's ironclads, trapped in Steel's Bayou, ending another attempt to reach Vicksburg's rear. 1865- Battle of Bentonville, N.C., is the last significant Confederate effort to halt Sherman's advance.
1817- Braxton Bragg (CSA) is born in Warrenton, N.C. 1865- Maj. Gen. James H. Wilson launches a sweeping Federal cavalry raid into Northern Alabama.
1862- First Battle of Kernstown, Va., marks the opening of the Shenandoah campaign. 1864- Frederick Steele advances from Little Rock, Ark., to join the Union Red River Campaign 1865- Sherman occupies Goldsboro, N.C.
1864- President Lincoln meets with U.S. Grant, General-in-Chief of the U.S. Armies, at the White House.
1863- Burnside is appointed commander of the Department of the Ohio with orders to operate eastern Tennessee. 1864- Nathaniel P. Banks assumes command of the Red River Campaign. 1865- Maj. Gen. John B. Gordon captures Fort Stedman at Petersburg but is forced to retreat under heavy Federal counterattacks. - Union troops begin siege of Mobile, Ala.
1863- West Virginia voters approve gradual emancipation of slaves.
1865- Pres. Lincoln meets with Generals Grant and Sherman and Adm. Porter aboard the River Queen at City Point, Va. - Sheridan rejoins the Army of the Potomac.
1818- Wade Hampton (CSA) is born in Charleston, S.C. 1863- The Confederate invasion of New Mexico is halted at the Battle of Glorieta.
1861- Lincoln's cabinet takes a stronger stand on holding Federal forces in the South. 1862- A.S. Johnston reassembles Confederate Western forces at Corinth, Miss. 1865- Appomattox Campaign begins.
1864- Confederates attack Synder's Bluff, Miss.
1862- Pres. Lincoln recalls some of McClellan's troops to help protect Washington.