Ohio-born William S. Rosecrans, an 1842 West Pointer, interrupted a successful career as an engineer to return to the army at the start of the Civil War, where he joined McClellan as a volunteer aide-de-camp.
In spite of a notoriously unruly temper, Rosecrans was chosen to replace John Pope as commander of the Mississippi Army in June 1862. He was quickly promoted to major general and led the Union Army of the Cumberland to a disputed victory (the Confederates claimed a draw) at Stone's River near Murfreesboro, Tennessee, in late 1862. His solid performance at Stone's River earned him the Thanks of Congress.
Rosecrans's embarrassing defeat at Chickamauga in September 1863 resulted in his removal from command. Although he was commander of the Mississippi Department until 1864, he saw no further service in the field. He enjoyed postwar success in business and in public service, representing California in Congress (1881-1885) and service as a register of the U.S. Treasury (1885-1893).