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July 1

1862- Lee's last effort to disrupt McClellan's retreat is repulsed at Maven Hill, Va.,
ending the Seven Days' Battle.

      - The U.S. Congress authorizes construction of a transcontinental railroad.

1863- Confederates A.P. Hill and Ewell rout Meade's advance forces at Gettysburg;
Lee concentrates on Seminary Ridge, and Meade on Cemetery Ridge.

July 2

1862- Lincoln calls for 300,000 three-year enlistments.

      - The U.S. Congress passes the Morrill Act, providing land grants to states for
agricultural colleges.                            

1863- Lee's heavy attacks on both ends of Meade's Gettysburg lines are repulsed.

      - Stuart rejoins Lee.

July 3

1862- McClellan entrenches at Harrison's Landing, Va., on the James River.

1863- Lee orders an attack on Meade's center; "Pickett's Charge" is broken, ending
the three-day Battle of Gettysburg.

      - Pemberton asks Grant for terms for Vicksburg's surrender.

      - Bragg, outmaneuvered by Rosecrans, retreats to Chattanooga.

1864- Johnston withdraws from Kennesaw Mountain to his Chattahoochee River
defenses to escape Sherman's flanking movement.

July 4

1861- A special session of the U.S. Congress convenes.

1863- Vicksburg, with 300,000 troops, surrenders to Grant.

1864- The U.S. Congress passes the Wade-Davis Bill, a stiff reconstruction
measure which Lincoln refuses to sign.

July 5

1863- Lee retreats from Gettysburg.

July 6

1864- Early crosses the Potomac River into Maryland.

July 7

1863- Finding the Potomac flooded, Lee entrenches at Williamsport, Md. ; Meade
refrains from attacking.

July 8

1863- Confederate unconditionally surrender Port Hudson, La., last Confederate
garrison on the Mississippi.

July 9

1863- The surrender of Port Hudson, La., gives the Federals control of the
Mississippi River, thus splitting the Confederacy.

      - John Hunt Morgan leads a Confederate cavalry raid across the Ohio River.

1864- Johnston withdraws from the Chattahoochee River line as Sherman outflanks
him and pushes toward Atlanta.

     - Early reaches Frederick, Md., and wins a victory at Monocacy.

July 10

1863- Federal forces land on Morris Island near Charleston, S.C., and begin siege of
Fort Wagner that will last until September.

July 11

1861- McClellan wins the Battle of Rich Mountain in western Virginia.

1862- Halleck becomes general in chief of the Union armies.

1864- Reinforcements from the Army of the Potomac arrive in Washington to protect
the capital.

July 12

1864- Early is forced to withdraw to Shenandoah Valley after reaching the outskirts
of Washington.

July 13

1863- In New York City a mob of 50,000 begin four-day draft riots.

July 14

1862- Pope leads an advance of the Union Army of Virginia upon Gordonsville, Va.

1863- Lee completes his withdrawal across the Potomac River; Maj. Gen. Harry
Heth fights a rearguard action at Falling Waters, Md.

July 15

1864- Union Maj. Gen. A.J. Smith withdraws from Tupelo, Miss., despite a tactical
victory over Forrest and Lt. Gen. Stephen D. Lee.

July 16

1861- McDowell's Union army advances upon Manassas Junction, Va

1863- Federal troops restore order in New York City.

July 17

1862- The U.S. Congress passes a second Confiscation Act, freeing the slaves of
those who support rebellion.

1864- General John Bell Hood replaces Johnston in command of the Confederate
Army of Tennessee as Sherman nears Atlanta.

July 18

1863- Federal Maj. Gen. John G. Foster assumes command of the Department of
Virginia and North Carolina.

July 19

1863- Over half of Morgan's force is captured at Buffington, Ohio.

July 20

1861- Maj. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston's Rebel troops from the Shenandoah Valley
join Brig. Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard at Manassas Junction.

      - The Confederate Congress convenes at Richmond.

1864- Hood's attack on the Federals at Peachtree Creek, Ga., is repulsed;
Sherman moves to cut Atlanta's rail connections.

July 21

1861- The First Battle of Bull Run ( First Manassas) ends in rout of McDowell's
Union forces.

      - Maj. Gen. John C. Frémont assumes command of Union forces in the West,
at St. Louis.

      - R.M.T. Hunter replaces Robert Toombs as the Confederate Secretary of

July 22

1862- A cartel, providing for prisoner exchange, is signed by the North and the

      - Lincoln shows his first draft of the Emancipation Proclamtion to his cabinet.

1864- Hood fails to turn Sherman's flank at the Battle of Atlanta; Union Maj. Gen.
James B. McPherson is killed.

July 23

1862- Maj. Gen. Henry Wager Halleck assumes command of the armies of the U.S.

July 24

1863- The Army of Northern Virginia begins to concentrate at Culpeper Hill, Va.

1864- Early defeats Union troops at Kernstown in the Shenandoah Valley.

July 25

1861- The U.S. Congress passes the Crittenden Resolution, declaring the object of
the war to be the preservation of the Union.

July 26

1863- Morgan surrenders at New Lisbon, Ohio.

July 27

1861- McClellan replaces McDowell as commander of Federal troops in the
Washington area.

July 28

1864- Federal troops making a feint at Richmond are repulsed at Deep Bottom, Va.

      - At Ezra Church, Ga., Hood's third attack on Sherman is broken.

July 29

1862- The Alabama  leaves Liverpool, England, to begin attacks upon Northern

July 30

1864- A Federal mine breaches Lee's Petersburg lines, but the Rebels halt the
Union breakthrough at the Battle of the Crater.

      - Brig. Gen. John McCausland's Rebel cavalry burns Chambersburg, Pa.

July 31

1864- George Stoneman's Union cavalry attempts to liberate Andersonville prisoners
but is captured by Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler near Macon, Ga.